A quite popular cargo bike with a flat bed in the front that first appearing in the 1920s in Denmark, Sweden, and The Netherlands. It's a long wheelbase bike with two wheels that can carry a lot of weight and can be quite easy to drive once you get used the feel. See more: "long john"
A bike with an extra long extension behind the seat so that a much longer rack can be installed allowing for a lot more cargo and seats for 2+ children or even an adult. There a variety of long-tails and accessories for different kinds of cargo. Long-tails are typically more affordable than box bikes and has components that are readily available in North American bike shops. They usually cannot carry as much stuff as box bikes.
Made popular first by the Xtracycle add-on for mountain bikes, but now a bunch of companies making dedicated bikes, including Yuba, Surly, Salsa and Kona. Surly and Salsa even have fat bike versions of the long-tail to make them useful in even more climates.
Cycle trucks have the same overall size of a standard city bike, but they have a smaller front wheel (typically 20″ compared to a 26″ rear), with a front rack affixed to the frame over the wheel. The smaller wheel allows the cargo to be at a lower centre of gravity which really helps with stability. The frame is fixed to the frame instead of the fork which also really helps with the stability of the load when turning.
A trailer with a flat bed, a box or special attachments to carry a variety of cargo. Some are really robust and long so that large, awkward cargo can be carried although with some effort if going uphill.
A bike trailer that is outfitted to carry children securely, often with a cover, padding. Some varieties cater to children with special needs.
A bicycle that can carry two+ people--adults or children. Some varieties cater to children or adults with special needs that need more support.
An electric motor when outfitted on a bike, the bike becomes an "e-bike" or a "pedal-assist" to provide oomph on hills, into the wind, and with large loads.
Basically a three-wheeled version of the box bike. Some people prefer the trike because of their stability but usually there's a trade-off with making it harder to make turns and more difficult to negotiate tighter spaces and avoid potholes. Some bikes like Nihola and Butchers & Bicycles overcome the turning limitations with sophisticated mechanisms in the wheels. Butchers & Bicycles trikes will actually lean into the turn.
Some of the common brands include Nihola, Babboe, Triobike, Butchers and Bicycles.
Originally "bakfiets" in Dutch, literally "box bike" in English (pronounced "BUCK-FEETS"), this bike is structurally similar to the long john but has a wooden or plastic container on the flat bed on the front. This variety is popular for schlepping children and often comes equipped with seats, seat belts, rain covers and other things to increase the comfort of children.
Popular brands include Bakfiets.nl, Bullitt, Workcycles, Babboe, Riese & Muller, Urban Arrow. Even Yuba is getting into the game.
A bike trailer that only has the base with no walls. There are often ways to attach bungee cords so you can carry large amounts of stuff, such as bins and boxes.
A cargo bike set up to accommodate people with special needs, either older children or elderly adults.
A cargo bike that is partially foldable to help with storage in small spaces.
A bike specially built for taxiing people.
Any bike that is built to carry things or people. It has practical features like baskets/racks, fenders and places where child seats can be mounted.
A bit shorter than long-tail but longer than traditional bikes, a midtail could "fit into more people's lives" according to Bike Shop Girl. They are easier to store and find parking, fit on a bus rack or on a car bike hitch rack.
The category could include bikes like the Workcycles FR8 and the Kona MinUTE designed with large racks but shorter wheelbases. One of the most popular now is the Tern GSD/HSD, Yuba Boda Boda/Kombi, Salsa Blackborow (a cargo fat bike) and the Xtracycle RFA (again according to Bike Shop Girl).